Navigating Paradoxes: The Conundrum of Leadership in a Contradictory World - Part I - Praxis
Navigating Paradoxes: The Conundrum of Leadership in a Contradictory World – Part I

Navigating Paradoxes: The Conundrum of Leadership in a Contradictory World – Part I

Leaders today must grapple with paradoxes at various levels. The key lies in recognising that these are opportunities for creative problem-solving and innovation


We are living in a world of increasing contradictions where paradoxes are becoming a way of life. The corner office is constantly facing situations that demand the highest level of critical thinking abilities in handling paradoxes. Two recent instances bring out the complexity of paradoxes – the call from OpenAI, the company which unleashed ChatGPT, the Large Language Model powered generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) chatbot which virtually democratised AI, for greater government regulation to control advanced research in AI, and Saudi Arabia, an economy whose wealth and power comes from its fossil fuel reserves, hosting COP28, the United Nations’ climate summit which wants countries to shift away from fossil fuels to renewable energy and clean technologies.

Government oversight on AI research will undoubtedly curb innovation that is crucial for it advancements, while Saudi Arabia’s economic model will take a beating if the world moves away from fossil fuels. While we can debate whether OpenAI or Saudi Arabia were driven by altruistic motives, or positioning themselves to dominate future actions that would have an adverse impact on their businesses, rather than be left out of it.

Nevertheless, these eventsencapsulate the complex and often contradictory choices facing today’s leaders, particularly those in the realms of business and politics. The essence of leadership in the modern era is increasingly defined by the ability to navigate and reconcile these paradoxes. It is this context that our future leaders being trained in our academic institutions understand the fascinating concept of paradoxes.

Understanding the Nature of Paradoxes

Paradoxes, as defined by scholars like Wendy K. Smith and Marianne W. Lewis, are “persistent, interdependent contradictions.” They represent elements that are seemingly at odds yet interconnected. The authenticity paradox, as described by London Business School professor Herminia Ibarra, exemplifies this: leaders are encouraged to be authentic, yet true authenticity can hinder adaptability and growth.

The Energy Industry: A Case Study in Paradox

The energy sector, particularly companies like Royal Dutch Shell, BP, and Ørsted, a Danish energy MNC, illustrates the paradoxical nature of modern business. Shell’s recent shift towards fossil fuels, despite the global push for renewable energy, highlights the tension between short-term shareholder value and long-term sustainability. BP’s oscillation between fossil fuels and renewable energy investments reflects the challenges of navigating this paradox. In contrast, Ørsted’s successful transition to renewable energy demonstrates a both/and approach, embracing the paradox to find innovative solutions.

The Role of Leadership in Paradoxical Times

Leaders today must grapple with paradoxes at various levels – individual, organisational, and societal. The key lies in recognising that these paradoxes are not insurmountable but rather opportunities for creative problem-solving and innovation.

Strategies for Leaders:

  • Shift Perspectives: Leaders should consider different time horizons and stakeholder perspectives. This approach can transform apparent contradictions into opportunities for holistic solutions.
  • Adopt a Paradox Mindset: Viewing tensions as catalysts for creativity can enhance organisational performance. Leaders can develop this mindset through diverse experiences and cognitive challenges.
  • Hold Paradox Sparring Sessions: These sessions encourage leaders to challenge assumptions and explore novel solutions, turning perceived paradoxes into practical strategies.


In Part 2, we will discuss how apparently positive significant events – like the Indian Green Revolution or OpenAI’s call for AI Regulation –present paradoxical scenarios, and what lessons business leaders can derive from them.

[To be continued]

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